The World of Sugar: How the Sweet Stuff Transformed Our Politics, Health, and Environment over 2,000 Years(砂糖が変えた世界:産業から政治まで)

ウルベ・ボスマの著書『The World of Sugar』では、過去2000年にわたって砂糖が世界の政治、健康、環境に与えた影響について掘り下げています。この本は、砂糖の生産と消費がどのようにして現代の資本主義、グローバルな不平等、消費文化の形成に寄与したかを解明しています。







第6章「Slavery Stays」では、19世紀における砂糖産業と奴隷制の持続に焦点を当てています。特にキューバがどのようにして大量の奴隷を輸入し、世界最大の砂糖輸出国になったかを詳述しています。奴隷制の継続は、技術的な機械化が手作業の収穫を置き換えることができなかったため、コストの主要な要因として労働が依然として重要であったことが一因です。これはアジアにとっては有利であり、特にインドは世界最大の砂糖生産国であり続け、その生産の大部分は国内市場向けでしたが、相当量が世界中に輸出されていました。




Fifty years after the revolution led by Toussaint L’Ouverture in Saint Domingue (now known as Haiti), the map of global sugar exports had changed beyond recognition. Cuba now dominated with an output almost equal to what was exported from the entire set of French and British Caribbean islands.

The exports of Brazil, India, Java, Louisiana, Mauritius, Puerto Rico, and British Guiana followed Cuba’s output in descending order and at some distance. Unchanged, however, was the dominant role of slavery in the cane fields. This persistence had immense consequences for the societies involved and exacerbated the legacies and traumas of slavery that continue until this very day”.


Slavery persisted particularly because in the cane fields, as well as the cotton fields for that matter, mechanization did not at all replace grueling manual harvesting and thus failed to turn labor into less of a determinant of the cost price. This was also to the advantage of Asia, where, as the prominent abolitionist Zachary Macaulay had already noticed in 1823, living expenditures and the cost of necessary materials to cultivate and process cane were so much lower than in the Americas.